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Kuzbass Kemerovo The Autonomous Industrial Colony Kuzbass: Beginning VideoЛегионер \
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First-level administrative division of Russia. Oblast in Siberian, Russia. Coat of arms. Main article: Administrative divisions of Kemerovo Oblast.
Largest cities or towns in Kemerovo Oblast Russian Census. President of the Russian Federation. Gosstandart of the Russian Federation.
Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, Retrieved January 23, June 3, Retrieved January 19, Retrieved January 29, Kemerovo Oblast.
Retrieved July 20, Dictionary of Minor Planet Names 5th ed. New York: Springer Verlag. Retrieved on Sreda, Subdivisions of Russia.
The Decree contained a list of 72 concession territories. One of the most attractive objects was the Kuznetsk Basin: "The Kuznetsk coal Basin, undoubtedly, ranks first in terms of the quantity and quality of deposits to be submitted for development on a concession basis, as well as in terms of the number of prospects for the industrial development of Western Siberia".
The First World War, the civil war, the foreign intervention, famine and drought brought the country's economy into a catastrophic state.
Sebald Rutgers, an engineer and socialist from the Netherlands, was the first to suggest: "The starving people of Russia need not only our money, food and other products.
And such form of support will be exactly what the starving people need Together they turned this idea into a project of industrial labor colonies that foreign industrial workers were to set up in the economically significant regions of Russia: "Since it is impossible to upgrade the Russian economy quickly enough, it is necessary to transplant an independent industrial unit from America; a group of foreign workers and engineers, familiar with advanced technologies and production, will lay the foundations of modern industry in that region.
Rutgers insisted that such an organization should act as a closed independent economic unit within the Soviet system.
He feared that qualified foreign specialists would merge into the Soviet production system and lose their advantages.
The project was supported by the Soviet government and delegates to the Congress. In the summer of , Rutgers led an expedition to Kuzbass in order to select the site for the first experimental colony.
He declared Kuzbass a perfect place for foreign workers. After the agreement had been signed, they formed an Organizing Committee, which included Rutgers, Calvert, Heywood, Barker, Bayer, Mann, and Watkins, each responsible for a particular direction.
Sebald Rutgers was a Dutch engineer, the author of the Kuzbass project. He was appointed the chief director of the Colony and was elected Chairman of the Kuzbass Board.
Bill Heywood a political emigrant from the United States, remained in Moscow as AIC representative for solving all organizational issues.
He preceded Rutgers in Kemerovo. Jack Beyer was a political emigrant from the United States. He was delegated to Kuzbass to prepare accommodations for the first colonists and establish contacts with local authorities.
He was in charge of the New York Office after Calvert. Together with Watkins, he was to recruit miners in England. It took Rutgers team and the Council of Labor and Defense five months to draft the contract.
Such carefulness was explained by the enormous political and propagandistic significance of the project, as well as by the considerable material risk on the part of the Soviet government, which financed the project.
While supporting the idea of a foreign colony, the Council of Labor and Defense was afraid that the project would fail as it could attract random people lacking sufficient qualification, in which case the costs, allocated from the scanty Russian budget, would not pay off.
Lenin was quite explicit about Kuzbass leaders: "Heywood is a semi-anarchist, more sentimental than business-like; Rutgers might slip into leftism at any minute.
Calvert is all talk no work They are carried away too easily We have no business guarantees here.
The Council of Labor and Defense held two opposite options for the development of Kuzbass. The other was expressed by Sebald Rutgers.
Fedorovich proved the economic inefficiency of Kuzbass: poor Russian locals would never be able to work shoulder to shoulder with foreign proletarians.
Besides, ggreat plans require large capital. He said: "Only foreign capital can help us in such a difficult economic situation.
In my opinion, the only option that might eventually turn beneficial for the Motherland is to give up Kemerovo mines to a foreign concession.
Rutgers had a different opinion: "I believe that the independence of the enterprise from foreign capital is of greatest economic and political significance.
It is extremely important that the region, which has such a colossal importance for the further development of industry, does not fall into the hands of our class enemies.
Instead of attracting concessionaires and capitalists to the industrial development of this extremely important region, I propose to attract a group of foreign workers and engineers and give them an opportunity to build this industry.
Krzhizhanovsky and L. On November 22, , the Council of Labor and Defense signed a contract with the Kuzbass organization team.
The draft was approved by the Council of People's Commissars on October 25, According to the new agreement, the organization was considered officially approved on October 1, Sebald Rutgers was appointed the chief director of the Kuzbass Colony.
His main task was "to set up modern large-scale industry. Originally, it was decided to give Kuzbass control over the Nadezhdinsk metallurgic plant in the Urals, but it had to be postponed.
As a state enterprise, Kuzbass was exempt from all taxes. The Colony was allowed a duty-free import of those equipment and materials that were not manufactured in Russia.
It was supposed that local workers would be involved on equal footing with foreigners. The Colony was called a "concession of workers", because its members invested in the development of the Kuzbass their labor instead of money.
The enterprise was autonomous because it reported directly to the Council of Labor and Defense and the Kuzbass Board; all other state and local bodies were forbidden to interfere with the administrative, technical and organizational work of the enterprise.
The founders later admitted that the word "colony" in the name of the enterprise bore a certain negative connotation.
But in Russia the word "colony" denoted both a settlement founded by settlers from another country and a factory village. Besides, there had already been a settlement near the coke plant in Kemerovo called New Colony in the days of Kopikuz Company.
Like any other enterprise, the Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony had a company stamp, but it was as unusual as the organization itself.
Its design was developed by one of the founders of the Colony, Jack Beyer. The basis for its design was the poster of a play dedicated to a grandiose strike in the town of Paterson back in The IWW and Bill Heywood encouraged twenty-five thousand workers to go on strike that lasted several months.
It was based on his play The War in Paterson. The building was decorated with red bulbs that spelled Industrial workers of the world. Above the stage there was a gigantic poster depicting a heroic worker placed against an industrial background.
The author of the poster was Robert Jones, a famous theater artist. Over 15, spectators attended the play, including 1, strikers from Paterson, who waved red flags and IWW posters.
After the strike in Paterson, the image from the playbill became a IWW symbol. The Colony was created parallel to its offices in New York and Berlin.
Their task was to recruit colonists, purchase equipment and provide colony with technical information. The American Office was headquartered in New York.
At first it was located on 40th Street, but on May 1, , it was moved to Broadway. The Kuzbass Colony support centers promoted information about the project, selected candidates, interviewed them, helped them to collect all necessary documents and get to the assembly point.
Each candidate was required to submit a qualification profile and a medical certificate. This commitment warned potential colonists about the hardships that awaited them in the starving country, e.
After the expiration of the contract, this amount was to be refunded. Eventually, the Colony managed an area equal to the territory of the Netherlands.
There were no diplomatic relations established between Soviet Russia and the United States in that period. However, some Americans welcomed the Russian revolution and advocated the normalization of relations between the two countries, e.
In , American Office established an Advisory Committee. It included famous American scientists, journalists and other celebrities that openly promoted and supported the idea of Kuzbass.
Charles Proteus Steinmetz "The Lord of Lightning", "The Magic Dwarf from Breslau", "Electro-dwarf" — these was how journalists nicknamed outstanding mathematician, electrical scientist, engineer and inventor Dr.
Charles Steinmetz. William Montgomery Brown was the Bishop of Arkansas. His book withstood a number of publications and was published in Russian in Thorstein Bunde Veblen was an outstanding American economist, sociologist, publicist and futurist.
He entered the history of economic thought as the founder of institutionalism and the first popular critic of capitalism.
In his masterpiece The Theory of the Leisure Class Veblen combined sociology with economics and introduced the terms "leisure class" and "conspicuous consumption.
They did not produce anything: they just spent huge money on completely meaningless things in pursuit of the hottest trends. Veblen was left-wing but not a Marxist.
He said: "Eventually, something new will appear, but right now I do not see a better course than the one chosen by the Communists.
Kuzbass benefited greatly from its propaganda in the United States. Popular newspapers wrote about Americans who intended to "build a more efficient industry in Kuzbass than the one built by the capitalists in the state of New Jersey.
The brochure was criticized for being too promotional: it embellished the real state of affairs in Siberia. In response, American mining engineer Alfred Pierson, who ran the Kemerovo Mine, wrote: "the brochure does not allow a modern American city dweller to imagine the grayness of a Siberian town with its log huts, so he will probably be disappointed by the reality, although I have seen many a miner town in America that would make Kemerovo look like the city of your dreams.
We invite only those workers who are ready to give all their energy and who are willing and able to bear the hardships of the first years".
The first issue of the Bulletin was sold out in a week, and soon its subscribers numbered thousands. The Bulletin covered Kuzbass plans, reports, and stories about the life of the colonists, their letters, poems, photographs, and applications for specialists.
The Kuzbass Bulletin became the most effective means of Kuzbass propaganda. Its materials appeared in other newspapers and magazines.
Tom Barker said that they knew about Kuzbass more in America than in Russia. The last issue of the Bulletin was published on December 1, Eventually they had to stop publishing because of financial difficulties; besides, the permanent staff of the Colony had already been shaped.
Since , people were recruited only to replace those colonists who had worked their time. The first group of colonists departed from New York to Kuzbass on April 8, , on the steamer Adriatic.
From to , several groups of colonists were sent from the USA to Kuzbass every year to replace those whose two-year contract had run out.
There they were joined by colonists from European countries and went to Petrograd by smaller steamers.
A special train took them from there to Kemerovo. In addition to personal luggage, colonists carried food, materials, tools, equipment, and seeds.
Ruth Kennell, who came to Kuzbass with the 4 th group, wrote to Calvert's wife Mellie July 11, , 4th group : "Dear Mellie, in the evening our train left Petrograd in stormy weather We call our train Maxim Gorky.
You know that this writer traveled a lot around the country. There are 19 freight wagons in our train, some of them have sleeping plank-beds, and others carry food and stuff.
There is no light, we use candles. We have to boil our water, we drink only coffee. We have a laundry car with basins where we can wash our stuff with soap and hot water.
Vladimir Shishkin. Staff members. Alexey Verbov. Head coach. Konstantin Sidenko. Coach assistant. Add roster photo. Victor Poletaev. Yaroslav Podlesnykh.
Dmitry Kostrov. Dmytro Pashytskyy. Lauri Kerminen. Nikita Lyasov. Francesco Oleni. Ivan Lukyanenko. Vitaliy Vasiliev.
Semyon Dmitriev. Sergei Nikitin. Alexander Moiseev. Tuomas Sammelvuo. Claudio Rifelli. Sergey Makarov. Dmitriy Ilinykh. Dmitry Popov. Ivan Ropavka. About million tons of coal is mined annually.
Rail transport is well developed in the region. Rate this page: Currently 2. Visit Our Blog about Russia to know more about Russian sights, history Check out our Russian cities and regions guides Follow us on Twitter and Facebook to better understand Russia Info about getting Russian visa , the main airports , how to rent an apartment Our Expert answers your questions about Russia, some tips about sending flowers.
The capital city of Kemerovo oblast: Kemerovo. Kemerovo oblast overview Kemerovo oblast Kemerovskaya is a federal subject of Russia located in the south-east of Western Siberia, part of the Siberian Federal District.
The population of Kemerovo oblast is about 2,, , the area - 95, sq. Kemerovo oblast flag. Kemerovo oblast coat of arms. Kemerovo oblast map, Russia.
Kemerovo region history People began to settle in what is now the Kemerovo region several thousand years ago. More historical facts… In Soviet times, the region became part of the West Siberian krai, and then - Novosibirsk oblast.
Mountain stream in the Kemerovo region Author: Sergey Timofeev. On the shore of a small lake in Kemerovo oblast Author: Sergey Timofeev.It is the most densely populated part of Siberia. Ruslan Askerov. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official Spielautomat Ebay acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance K0stenlose Spiele the Constitution of Russia. Russian Orthodoxy.